Database Description

There are a paper and three manuals describe the current database:

Liu, C., E.J.Zipser, D.J.Cecil,S.W.Nesbitt, and S. Sherwood, 2008: A cloud and precipitation feature database from 9 years of TRMM observations. J. Appl. Meteor. Climate, 47, DOI:10.1175/2008JAMC1890.1, in press.(PDF)
Liu, C., University of Utah TRMM precipitation and cloud feature database description, v1.0, 2007 (PDF).
Liu, C., New TRMM precipitation and cloud feature database description, v2.0, 2012 (PDF)
Liu, C., GPM precipitation and cloud feature database description, v1.0, 2016 (PDF)

Publications

Chen, B., C. Liu, and B. Mapes, 2017:Relationships between large precipitating systems and atmospheric factors at a grid scale, J. Atmos. Sci., doi:10.1175/JAS-D-16-0049.1. (PDF)
Peterson, M., W. Deierling, C. Liu, D. Mach, C. Kalb, 2017:The properties of optical lightning flashes and the clouds they illuminate, J. Geophys. Res., 122,.423-442, doi:10.1002/2016JD025312. (PDF)
Ni, X., C. Liu, Q. Zhang, D. Cecil, 2016: Properties of hail storms over China and the United States from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission, J. Geophys. Res., 121, 12031-12044, DOI: 10.1002/2016JD025600 (PDF)
Kalb, C., W. Deierling, A. Baumgaertner, M. Peterson, C. Liu, and D. Mach, 2016: Parameterizing total storm conduction currents in the community earth system model, J. Geophy. Res., 121, doi:10.1002/2016JD025376.. (PDF)
Liu, N., and C. Liu, 2016: Global distribution of deep convection reaching tropopause in one-year GPM observations, J. Geophys. Res.,121, doi:10.1002/2015JD024430. (PDF)
Chen, B., and C. Liu, 2016: Warm organized rain systems over the tropical eastern pacific, J. Climate, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-15-0177.1. (PDF)
Peterson, M., C. Liu, D. Mach, W. Deierling, and C. Kalb, 2015: A method of estimating electric fields above electrified clouds from passive microwave observations J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech.32, 1429-1446. (PDF)
Liu, C. and E. Zipser,2015:The global distribution of largest, deepest, and most intense precipitation systems, Geophys. Res. Lett 42, doi:10.1002/2015GL063776. (PDF)
Hamada, A., T. N. Takayabu, C.Liu, and E. J. Zipser, 2015: Robust differences in rainfall characteristics and related environments between extreme rainfall and extreme convective events extracted from TRMM PR measurements Nature comm 6:6213. (PDF)
Liu, C., S. Shige, T. Takayabu, and E. J. Zipser, 2015: latent heating contribution from precipitation systems with different sizes, depths, and intensities in tropics, large scale circulations in reanalysis datasets J. climate 28, 186-203. (PDF)
Liu, C., and E. Zipser, 2014: Differences between the surface precipitation estimates from the TRMM precipitation radar and passive microwave radiometer version 7 products J. Hydrometeor. ,15, 2157-2175. (PDF)
Yokoyama, C., E. J. Zipser, C. Liu, 2014: TRMM-observed shallow vs. deep convection in the eastern pacific related to large scale circulations in reanalysis datasets J. climate. 27, 5575-5592.. (PDF)
Wall, C., E. J. Zipser, C. Liu, 2014:An investigation of the aerosol indirect effect on convective intensity using satellite observations, J. Atmos. Sci. , 71, 430-447. (PDF)
Wall, C., C. Liu, and E. Zipser, 2013: A climatology of tropical congestus using CloudSat, J. Geophys. Res. doi :10.1002/jgrd.50455. (PDF)
Peterson, M., and C. Liu, 2013: >Characteristics of lightning flashes with exceptional illuminated areas, durations, and optical powers and surrounding storm properties in the tropics and inner subtropics, J. Geophys. Res. 118, 1-14. (PDF)
Zhou, Y., W. K. M. Lau, and C. Liu, 2013: Rain characteristics and large scale environments of precipitation objects with extreme rain volumes from TRMM observations, J. Geophys. Res. 117, 9673-9689. (PDF)
Liu, C., and E. Zipser, 2013: Regional variation of morphology of the organized convection in the tropics and subtropics J. Geophys. Res. 118, 453-466. (PDF)
Liu, C., and E. Zipser, 2013: Why does radar reflectivity tend to increase downward toward the ocean surface, but decrease downward toward the land surface J. Geophys. Res. 118, 135-148. (PDF)
Liu, C., D. Cecil, and E. J. Zipser, 2012: Relationships between lightning flash rates and radar reflectivity vertical structures in thunderstorms over the tropics and subtropics. J. Geophys. Res.116,doi:10.1029/2011JD017123. (PDF)
Liu, C., D.J.Cecil, and E.J.Zipser, 2011: Relationship between lightning flash rates and passive microwave brightness temperatures at 85 and 37 GHz over the tropics and subtropics. J. Geophys. Res.116, D23108, doi:10.1029/2011JD016463. (PDF)
Peterson, M., and C. Liu, 2011: Global statistics of lightning in anvil and stratiform regions over tropics and subtropics observed by TRMM. J. Geophys. Res.116, D23201, doi:10.1029/2011JD015908. (PDF)
Wall, C.L., E.J.Zipser, and C.Liu, 2011: A regional climatology of monsoonal precipitation in the southwestern U.S. using TRMM. J. Hydrometeor.,12, doi: 10.1175/JHM-D-11-031.1 (PDF)
Liu, C., 2011: Rainfall contribution from precipitation systems with different sizesm intensities and durations. J. Hydrometeor.,12, 394-412. (PDF)
Jiang, H., C. Liu, and E. J. Zipser, 2011: A TRMM-based tropical cyclone cloud and precipitation feature database J. Appl. Meteor. Climat., 50, 1255-1274. (PDF)
Xu, W., and E.J.Zipser, 2011: Diurnal variations of precipitation, deep convection, and lightning over and east of the eastern Tibetan Plateau. J. Climate. , 24, 448-465. doi:10.1175/2010JCLI3719.1. (PDF)
Liu, C., E. Williams, E. J. Zipser, and G. Burns, 2010: Diurnal variations of global thunderstorms and electrified shower clouds and their contribution to the global electrical circuit J. Atmos. Sci., 67, 309-323. (PDF)
Xu, W., E. J. Zipser, C. Liu, and J. Jiang, 2010: On the relationships between lightning frequency and thundercloud parameters of regional precipitation systems J. Geophys. Res. ,115, D12203, doi:10.1029/2009JD013385 (PDF)
Gopalan, K., N.-Y. Wang, R. Ferraro, and C. Liu, 2010: Status of version 7 of the TRMM 2a12 land precipitation algorithm J. Tech. , 27, 1343-1354. (PDF)
Liu, C., and E. J. Zipser, 2009: Implication of the day vs. night differences of water vapor, carbon monoxide and thin cloud observations near tropical tropopause, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D09303, doi:10.1029/2008JD011524 (PDF)
Liu, C., and E.J.Zipser, 2009: "Warm rain" in the tropics: Seasonal and regional distribution based on 9 years of TRMM data. J. Climate, in press, early online release July 2008.  DOI: 10.1175/2008JCLI2641.1 (PDF)
Liu, C., E.J.Zipser, G.G. Mace, and S. Benson, 2008: Implications of the differences between daytime and nighttime CloudSat observations over the tropics. J. Geophys. Res., 113, 113, D00A04, doi:10.1029/2008JD009783. (PDF)
Zhang, Y., S. A. Klein, C. Liu, B. Tian, R. T. Marchand, J. M. Haynes, R. B. McCoy, Y. Zhang, and T. P. Ackerman, On the diurnal cycle of deep convection, high-level cloud and upper troposphere water vapor in the Multi-scale Modeling Framework, J. Geophys. Res., accepted, 2008. (PDF)
Liu, C., E.J.Zipser, D.J.Cecil,S.W.Nesbitt, and S. Sherwood, 2008: A cloud and precipitation feature database from 9 years of TRMM observations. J. Appl. Meteor. Climate, 47, DOI:10.1175/2008JAMC1890.1, in press.(PDF)

Li, Y., E.J.Zipser, S.K.Krueger, and M.A.Zulauf, 2008: Cloud-resolving modeling of deep convection observed during KWAJEX, Part I: Comparison to TRMM satellite and ground-based radar observations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 136, in press.(PDF)
Liu, C., and E.J.Zipser, 2008: Diurnal cycles of precipitation, clouds, and lightning in the triopics from 9 years of TRMM observations. Geophys. Res. Letters, 35, L04819, doi:10.1029/2007GL032437.(PDF)
Liu, C., E.Zipser, T.Garrett, J.Jiang, and H.Su, 2007: How do the water vapor and carbon monoxide "tape recorders" start near the tropical tropopause? Geophys. Res. Letters., , 34, L09804, doi:10.1029/2006GL029234(PDF).
Liu, C., E,J,Zipser, and S.W.Nesbitt, 2007: Global distribution of tropical deep convection: Differences using infrared and radar as the primary data source. J. Climate, 20, 489-503, DOI:10.1175/JCLI4023.1(PDF).
Salio, P., M.Nicolini, and E.J.Zipser, 2007: Mesoscale convective systems over Southeastern South America and their relationship with the South American Low Level Jet. Mon. Wea. Rev. 135, 1290-1309(PDF).
Zipser, E.J., D.J.Cecil, C.Liu, S.W.Nesbitt. and D.P.Yorty, 2006: Where are the most intense thunderstorms on earth? Bull, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 87, 1057-1071(PDF).
Mace, G.G., M. Deng, B. Soden, and E.J.Zipser, 2006: On the association of tropical cirrus in the 10-15 km layer with deep convective source regions; an observational study combining millimeter radar data and satellite-derived trajectories. J. Atmos. Sci., 63 (2), 480-503(PDF).
Liu, C. and E.J. Zipser, 2005: Global distribution of convection penetrating the tropicaL tropopause. J.Geophys. Res.-Atm, 110, in review.(PDF)
Cecil, D.J., S.J.Goodman, D.J.Boccippio, E.J.ZIpser, and S.W.Nesbitt, 2005: Three years of TRMM precipitation features. Part 1: Radar, radiometric, and lightning characteristics. Mon Wea. Rev., 133, 543-566.(PDF)
Nesbitt, S.W., E.J. Zipser, and C.D. Kummerow, 2004: An examination of Version-5 rainfall estimates from the TRMM Microwave Imager, Precipitation Radar, and rain gauges on global, regional, and storm scales. J. Appl. Meteor., 43, 1016-1036.(PDF)
Nesbitt, S.W., and E.J.Zipser, 2003: The diurnal cycle of rainfall and convective intensity according to three years of TRMM measurements. J. Climate, 16 (10), 1456-1475.(PDF)
E.J.Zipser, 2003: Some views on "hot towers" after 50 years of tropical field programs and two years of trmm data. Meteorological Monographs, 29 49-49.(PDF)
Cecil, D.J., E.J. Zipser, and S.W.Nesbitt, 2002: Reflectivity, ice scattering, and lightning characteristics of hurricane eyewalls and rainbands. Part I: Quantitative description. Mon Wea. Rev.,130, 769-784.(PDF)
Cecil, D.J., E.J. Zipser, and S.W.Nesbitt, 2002: Reflectivity, ice scattering, and lightning characteristics of hurricane eyewalls and rainbands. Part II: Intercomparison of observations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 130, 785-801.(PDF)
Toracinta, E.R., E.J. Zipser, D.J. Cecil, and S.W.Nesbitt, 2002: Radar, passive microwave, and lightning characteristics of precipitating systems in the tropics. Mon Wea. Rev., 130, 802-824.(PDF)
Nesbitt, S.W., E. J. Zipser, and D.J. Cecil, 2000: A census of precipitation features in the tropics using TRMM: Radar, ice scattering, and lightning observations. J. Climate, 13 (23), 4087-4106(PDF).

References

Arkin, P. A., and B. N. Meisner. 1987: The relationship between large-scale convective rainfall and cold cloud over the western hemisphere during 1982-84. Mon. Wea. Rev. 115, 51-74.
Awaka, J., T. Iguchi, and K. Okamoto, 1998: "Early results on rain type classification by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar", Proc. 8th URSI Commission F Open Symp., Aveiro, Portugal, pp.143-146.
DeMoss, J. D. , and K. P. Bowman, 2007: Changes in TRMM rainfall due to the orbit boost estimated from buoy rain gauge data, J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech., 24, 1598-1607.
Cecil, D. J., S. J. Goodman, D. J. Boccippio, E. J. Zipser and S. W. Nesbitt, 2005: Three years of TRMM precipitation features. Part I: radar, radiometric, and lightning characteristics, Mon. Wea. Rev. 133, 543-566.
Chen, S., R. A. Houze Jr., and B. E. Mapes, 1996: Multiscale variability of deep convection in relation to large-scale circulation in TOGA COARE, J. Atmos. Sci., 53, 1380-1409.
Cifelli, R., S. R. Nesbitt, S. A. Rutledge, W. A. Petersen, and S. Yuter, 2007: Radar characteristics of precipitation features in the EPIC and TEPPS regions of the east Pacific, Mon. Wea. Rev., 135, 1576-1595.
Dessler, A. E., The effect of deep, tropical convection on the tropical tropopause layer, J. Geophys. Res., 107, doi:10.1029/2001JD000511, 2002.
Ferraro, R. R., E. A. Smith, W. Berg, and G. J. Huffman, A screening methodology for passive microwave precipitation retrieval algorithms, J. Atmos. Sci., 55, 1583-1600, 1998.
Geerts, B., 1998: Mesoscale Convective Systems in the Southeast United States during 1994-95: A Survey. Wea. Forecasting, 13, 860-869.
Geerts,B., and T. Dejene, 2005: Regional and diurnal variability of the vertical structure of precipitation systems in Africa based on spaceborne radar data. J. Climat., 18, 893-916.
Huffman, G., R. Adler, M. Morrissey, D. Bolvin, S. Cuttis, R. Joyce, B. McGavock and J.Susskind, 2001: Global precipitation at one degree resolution from multi satellite observations. J. Hydrometeor., 2, 36-50.
Iguchi, T., T. Kozu., R. Meneghini, J. Awaka, and K. Okamoto, 2000: Rain-profiling algorithm for the TRMM precipitation radar. J. Appl. Meteor., 39, 2038-2052.
Joyce, R., and P. A. Arkin, 1997: Improved estimates of tropical and subtropical precipitation using the GOES Precipitation Index. J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 10, 997-1011.
Kalnay, E., M. Kanamitsu, R. Kistler, W. Collins, D. Deaven, L. Gandin, M. Iredell, S. Saha, G. White, J. Woollen, Y. Zhu, A. Leetmaa, B. Reynolds, M. Chelliah, W. Ebisuzaki, W. Higgins, J. Janowiak, K. C. Mo, C. Ropelewski, J. Wang, R. Jenne, and D. Joseph, 1996: The NCEP/NCAR 40 year reanalysis project, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 77, 437-471.
Kelley, O. A., J. Stout, and J. B. Halverson, Tall precipitation cells in tropical cyclones eyewalls are associated with tropical cyclone intensification. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L24112, doi:10.1029/2004GL021616, 2004.
Kelley O. A., J. Stout, J. B. Halverson, Hurricane intensification detected by continuously monitoring tall precipitation in the eyewall, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L20819, doi:10.1029/2005GL023583, 2005.
Kistler, R., E. Kalnay, W. Collins, S. Saha, G. White, J. Woollen, M. Chelliah, W. bisuzaki, M. Kanamitsu, V. Kousky, H. Dool, R. Jenne and M. Fiorino, 2001: The NCEP-NCAR 5-year reanalysis: monthly means CD-ROM and documentation. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 82, 247-267.
Kummerow, C., W. Barnes, T. Kozu, J. Shiue, and Joanne Simpson, 1998: The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Sensor Package. J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech., 15, 809ĘC817.
Kummerow, C., Y. Hong, W. S. Olson, S. Yang, R. F. Adler, J. McCollum, R. Ferraro, G. Petty, D.-B. Shin, and T. T. Wilheit. 2001: The Evolution of the Goddard Profiling Algorithm (GPROF) for rainfall estimation from passive microwave sensors. J. Appl. Meteor., 40, 1801-1820.
Liu, C., and E. J. Zipser, 2005: Global distribution of convection penetrating the tropical tropopause, J. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1029/2005JD00006063.
Liu, C., E. Zipser, and S. W. Nesbitt, 2007: Global distribution of tropical deep convection: Different perspectives using infrared and radar as the primary data source,J. Climate, 20, 489-503.
Liu, C., University of Utah TRMM precipitation and cloud feature database description, v1.0, http://www.met.utah.edu/trmm/TRMM_database_description_v1.0.pdf, 2007.
Liu, G., J. A. Curry, R. Sheu, 1995: Classification of clouds over the western equatorial Pacific Ocean using combined infrared and microwave satellite data, J. Geophys., Res., 100, 13811-13826.
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Mohr, K. I., and E. J. Zipser, 1996: Mesoscale convective systems defined by their 85-GHz ice scattering signature: Size and intensity comparison over tropical oceans and continents, Mon. Wea. Rev., 124, 2417-2437.
Nesbitt, S. W., E. J. Zipser, and D. J. Cecil, 2000: A census of precipitation features in the tropics using TRMM: radar, ice scattering, and lightning observations. J. Climate., 13, 4087-4106.
--------, and E. J. Zipser, 2003: The diurnal cycle of rainfall and convective intensity according to three years of TRMM measurements. J. Climate., 16, 1456-1475.
--------, S. W., R. Cifelli, and S. A. Rutledge, 2006: Storm morphology and rainfall characteristics of TRMM precipitation features, Mon. Wea. Rev., 134, 2702-2721.
Rudolf, B., 1995: Global Precipitation Climatology Centre. In: WMO/UNEP, The global climate system review, climate system monitoring June 1991 - November 1993. WMO-No. 819, Genf, 37.
Sherwood, S. C., and A. E. Dessler, Convective mixing near the tropical tropopause: insights from seasonal variations, J. Atmos. Sci., 60, 2674-2685, 2003.
Silva Dias, M. A. F., S., and coauthors, 2002: Cloud and rain processes in a biosphere-atmosphere interaction context in the Amazon region, J. Geophys., Res., 107, doi:10.1029/2001JD000335.
Spencer, R. W., H. G. Goodman, and R. E. Hood, 1989: Precipitation retrieval over land and ocean with the SSM/I: identification and characteristics of the scattering signal. J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech., 6, 254-273.
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Stephens, G. L., and coauthors, 2002: The CloudSat mission and the A-TRAIN, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 83, 1771-1790.
Toracinta, E. R., and E. J. Zipser, 2001: Lightning and SSM/I-ice-scattering mesoscale convective systems in the global tropics, J. Appl. Meteor., 40, 983-1002.
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Zipser, E. J., and K. R. Lutz, 1994: The vertical profile of radar reflectivity of convective cells: A strong indicator of storm intensity and lightning probability Mon. Wea. Rev., 122, 1751-1759.
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Software list

Read_pf_level1_hdf.pro
This program reads Level-1 UU TRMM data.
Usage:
IDL > read_pf_level1_hdf,'1Z99.19980101.537.6.HDF',f
Here f is a structure storing all the level-1 variables.

Read_pf_level2_hdf.pro
This program reads all old definition Level-2 products, including the combined monthly data.
Usage:
IDL> read_pf_level2_hdf,'199801.level2.v6.HDF',f,o,i
Here f is a structure with all the variables of old

Read_sds.pro
This program reads all the science data from HDF-4 format file and save into a structure. This program can be used to access level-2 products with new definitions and all level-3 products.
Usage example:
IDL> read_sds,'example.HDF',f ; f is a structure variable with all the parameters

Show_sds.pro
This program list all the science data variables from HDF-4 format file.
Usage:
IDL> show_sds,'example.HDF'

Read_sds_one.pro
This program reads in one variable from HDF-4 format file
Usage:
IDL> read_sds_one,'example.HDF','var1',var

 

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